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The Requisite Application of Seismic Exploration Data at Geological Modelling and Oil and Gas Reserves Estimation
Strakhov, P.N.,  and Bogdanov, O.A., Sapozhnikov, A.B., Strakhova, E.P

Key words: reserves appraisal, geological model, deposit, seismic exploration, disjunctive fault, petrophysical parameters

Recently, seismic survey materials are apparently not used enough in drawing geological models and assessment of hydrocarbon reserves. In most cases, only structural maps are used for the main reflecting horizons and comparatively large faults. The article justifies the need to expand the range of issues which can be solved by using seismic methods. Foremost, seismic data should be used to update interwell correlation. First of all, this refers to objects characterized by a clinoform structure. Secondly, seismic studies should be focused on interpolation of petrophysical parameters taking into account the properties of the wavefield. Thirdly, more attention should be paid to highlighting and tracing expanded low-amplitude disjunctive faults, which in some cases are tectonic screens of oil and gas deposits.

Review of Methods for Improving Gas Extraction, Production, Compression and Preparation at Deposits at the Final Stage of Development
Darymov, A.V., Cherezov, A.S., Suvorov, V.V., Prudkin, S.S., Velichkin, A.V.

Key words: Medvezhye oil, gas and gas condensate field, the final stage of development, gas gathering network, regeneration of adsorbent, field facilities abandonment, scaling, flowing part.

The article reviews methods for improving gas extraction, production, compression and preparation at deposits at the final stage of development. Technological solutions ensuring required volumes of gas production with deviations from the design operating modes are considered. The results of field tests of the dependence of the diethylene glycol residual concentration in reflux on the contact area and the shape of the mass transfer devices of the desorption column are shown. The paper also outlines the environmental impact after decommissioning and abandonment of the industrial facility.

The Effect of Carbon Dioxide Contained in the Natural Gas of the Lower Cretaceous Gas Condensate Deposit of the Yubineynoye Oil and Gas Condensate Field
on the Comprehensive Gas Treatment Unit Low Temperature Separation

Baydin, I.I., Kharitonov, A.N., Velichkin, A.V., Ilyin, A.V., Podolyansky, E.S.

Key words: Yubineynoye oil and gas condensate field, comprehensive gas treatment unit, low-temperature separation, carbon dioxide corrosion, CO2, corrosion monitoring, inhibitor protection, corrosion inhibitor solution

Corrosion protection and control are the basis parts of reliable and safe operation of process equipment operating in highly aggressive environments. The main driver of the aggressive impact on the Yubileynoye field equipment is the higher CO2 content in the wellbore fluid. The paper presents a degree assessment of the media aggressiveness for various formations of the Yubileynoye field according to Gazprom standard STO 9.3-011, taking into account the actual data obtained during development and exploitation of the deposit, so the reliable estimate of the corrosion situation has been achieved. Based on the paper data a conclusion has been drawn that inhibitor is the most efficient anticorrosion protection for Yubileynoye facilities.

The Role of Gazprom VNIIGAZ in Providing Research Support for the Development of Unique Hydrocarbon Fields. Experience and Prospects
Ryzhov, A.E., Zhirnov, R.A., Grigoriev, B.A., Derbenev, V.A., and Polozkov, K.A.

Key words: engineering design, scientific and technical support, pre-development, development, hydrocarbon deposits, well construction and operation, technologies

The article describes the VNIIGAZ contribution of to the engineering design and sci-tech support for the development of the largest hydrocarbon fields. The paper outlines the main cutting-edge technical and technological solutions, the application of which over the years has ensured the successful highly efficient development of a number of fields, both in Russia and abroad.
The article contains a brief design and development history of both developed and prospective deposits: Gazlinskoye, Shebelinskoye, Medvezhye, Karachaganak, Vuktylskoye, Yamburgskoye, Zapolyarnoye, Chayan­dinskoye, Urengoyskoye, Orenburgskoye, Bovanenkovskoye, Astrakhanskoye, offshore fields and others.
Experience and unique competencies in development design of gas and gas condensate fields, have been gained by Gazprom VNIIGAZ over 70 years of fruitful work, allow us to confidently start a new decade of "life" of the largest research institute in Russia.

Corrosion Monitoring and Inhibitor Protection against Carbon Dioxide Corrosion at the Low-Temperature Gas Separation Unit at the Yubileynoye Oil and Gas Condensate Field
Baydin, I.I., Kharitonov, A.N., Velichkin, A.V., Ilyin, A.V., and Podolyansky, E.S.

Key words: Yubineynoye oil and gas condensate field, comprehensive gas treatment unit, low-temperature separation, carbon dioxide corrosion, CO2, corrosion monitoring, inhibitor protection, corrosion inhibitor solution

The article discusses the selection of monitoring methods based on specific operational conditions at the comprehensive gas treatment-unit low temperature separation. The spots of higher corrosion risk at comprehensive gas treatment unit-low temperature separation (CGTU LTS) and the places of monitoring the anti-corrosion protection efficiency have been determined; on the basis of these data the decisions were made on placing monitoring instruments at CGU-LTS. Also the paper presents the most initial expenditures and time efficient inhibitor protection system, implemented on the basis of the existing methanol supply system, which does not require significant technical and construction upgrades. The paper outlines the results of the inhibitor efficiency control, as well as the efficiency of the adopted technological solutions based on the results of 3 steps testing, and this proves the protective inhibitor properties by the following: reducing the flow of corrosion products from wells, the iron ions content in liquid samples at the CGTU-LTS, and mitigating corrosion rate below 0.1 mm per year.

A Procedure to Test Proppant Used in Hydrofracturing
Verisokin, A.Ye., Institute of Oil and Gas, North Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol

Key words: proppant, proppant sand, fracture, conductivity cell, hydraulic actuator, filled-up density, conductivity, reservoir conditions, hydrofracturing, testing

The paper considers a proppant analyzing procedure which allows for determining the permeability of a proppant pack with respect to the height of the filled-up layer. The design of a facility to analyze proppant properties is described. The conducted tests revealed the distinctive features of permeability variation pressure growth. The conditions when the height of the filled-up layer varies depending on the pressure were determined. The application of the results obtained in the course of the experiments will allow for high increase in production, as the result, the efficiency of applying proppants will be higher for specific geological conditions.

Recommendation to Improve the Efficiency of Artificial Wells Exploitation
Shesteren, A.O.

Key words: gas-lift, gas-liquid mixture, optimization of gas-lift wells, specific pressure drop, dimensionless gas velocity, hydraulic characteristic.

The paper presents the methods to design and analyze operation of gaslift wells, an equation to calculate the motion of a gas-liquid mixture and its transfer to dimensionless parameters. The analytical process of gas-lift well optimization was carried out with the application of the hydraulic characteristics. As a result, the recommendations were proposed to improve the efficiency of well operation.
Optimization of gas-lift wells operation and redistribution of injected gas allows to use gas resources more efficient and increase significantly production rate at Vietsovpetro fields.

Analysis of the Effectiveness of Water-Flooding System at the White Tiger Field
Nikolaichenko, A.S.

Key words: flooding system, well, forecasting, saturated oil recovery factor, reservoir pressure maintenance, watercut products.

In the article, we estimate the residual oil reserves based on the work of the flowing wells, as well as the analysis of the White Tiger flooding system. The evaluation was carried out for individual wells, which allowed to take into account such boundary conditions: the stages of water-free operation and production of watercut products, the stages of flowing and artificial lift, the conditions of impact on the reservoir of the flooding system. The forecast of the saturated oil recovery factor is given when the well water cut is close to 100 %. The percentage of the actual and predicted oil recovery factor is presented.

Gazprom Georesurs LLC: Experience of Wells Technical Diagnostics by Geophysical Methods
Plotnikov, V.L., Oleynik, R.N., Chupova, I.M., Saliy, D.A., Ter-Sahakyan, N.Yu.

Key words: Geophysical exploration of wells (GIS), technical diagnostics of gas and gas condensate wells, GIS system, technical levels of GIS, resolution of GIS instrumentation, technical condition of a well, high-resolution technology to diagnose the technical condition of production wells.
In the short and medium outlook the main share of hydrocarbon production is associated with the fields that entered the declining production phase, and more than half of main assets, including wells stock, have been on-stream for more than 20 years and are characterized by a higher degree of physical deterioration.

Analysis of Thermomechanical Behavior of Thermal Insulated Sections of the Bovanenkovo-Ukhta Gas Pipeline
Mayants, Yu.A. and Elfimov, A.V., Kuzbozhev, A.S., Birillo, I.N., Shkulov, S.A., and Shishkin, I.V.

Key words: main gas pipeline, permafrost, thermal insulation, melting, ascent, critical length

The Bovanenkovo-Ukhta gas pipeline is characterized by a unique combination of technological parameters and severe natural and climate conditions of the Extreme North at the main section. To implement such a project, new methods and technologies have been developed and adopted that should ensure long-term reliable operation of the gas pipeline.
Permafrost preservation is the essential condition for ensuring reliability of the main gas pipeline. For this purpose, the pipe surface insulation is applied over several sections of the linear part. The insulation is to block the positive temperatures inside the thermal insulation layer and provide the absence of positive temperatures on the surface of the thermal insulation which contacts the permafrost soil. The effect of the thermal insulation deterioration level on the permafrost soil over the gas pipeline was analyzed by means of numerical simulation. Numerical simulation of a thermal interaction of thermal insulated gas pipeline with permafrost soil showed that at 3°C gas temperature in the pipe an effective 100 mm thick annular thermal insulation ensures the permafrost soil preservation throughout the entire life of the gas pipeline. The gas temperature increase in the pipe or the thermal insulation properties deterioration cause melting frozen soil underneath the pipe, i.e. ensuring the regulatory properties of thermal insulation is essentially required at all stages of the gas pipeline life cycle.
For the case of soil thawing over the pipeline footing, the risk of the pipe ascent was analyzed and the critical sections lengths were calculated at the rate of reaching the maximum permissible values in the pipes walls by the mechanical tension maximum values. The calculations showed that the deflection bend of the pipeline sections of critical length caused by total operating loads is comparable to the pipe laying depth at lowland, i.е. when the pipeline section of the critical length emerges, signs of the resulting pipe movements, for example, soil cracking, should be present on the backfill surface.
The monitoring results of the Bovanenkovo - Ukhta pipeline main section in the first five years of its operation showed no signs of the pipeline sections ascent in the permafrost area, which is an indirect confirmation that critical growth of permafrost melting over the footing of the pipeline linear sections with gas positive temperatures is absent and reassurance of technical solutions efficiency for the pipeline stability.

The best technique for controlling the carbon dioxide corrosion of pipelines at the bovanenkovskoye oil and gas condensate field
Slugin, P.P., Polyansky, A.V.

Key words: Bovanenkovskoye oil and gas condensate field, corrosive environment, corrosion, carbon dioxide, mineralization, partial pressure, low-alloy steel, corrosion inhibitor solution, anticorrosive protection.

In October 2014, an interior face corrosive wear of the surface piping parts in the Bovanenkovskoye oil wells was recorded, thus Gazprom dobycha Nadym LLC carried out the large-scale studies on the analysis of corrosive aggressiveness of the production well stock.
The results of diagnostic examinations and thickness measurements record a large number of local corrosion defects on the wells piping related both to the TP7-11 formation and to other layers
As a part the work the calculations of technological and technical&economic indicators aimed at providing the necessary anti-corrosive protection of production well stock at the Bovanenkovskoye oil and gas condensate field were carried out.

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